The Australasian lichen species Ramalea cochleata Müll. Arg. is placed into the new genus Notocladonia S. Hammer as Notocladonia cochleata (Müll. Arg.) S. Hammer. It is joined by a previously undescribed species from Australasia, N. undulata S. Hammer, a closed-axil, squamulose species with undulating apothecial tissue. Both species contain divaricatic and usnic acids. The Australasian species of Notocladonia are distinguished from species in the neotropical genus Ramalea Nyl. s. str. on the basis of their gross morphology, which is characterized by apically-borne apothecial tissue. In contrast, the species of Ramalea bear vegetative podetial tissue that grows above the apothecium. The lectotype for Ramalea tribulosa Nyl., the type species of the genus, is designated here.
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