As part of an ongoing lichen biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica, we present a survey on the taxonomy of the basidiolichen genus Dictyonema. Two species are described as new: D. melvinii Chaves, Lücking, & Umaña (also known from Colombia and Bolivia), and D. minor Lücking, Navarro, & Sipman (also known from Colombia and Venezuela). A total of 11 taxa are reported from the country, comprising six species and an additional five forms. Our numerous collections suggest that foliose and crustose growth forms, although having similar thallus anatomy, do represent distinct taxa. However, since molecular data to test this hypothesis are missing for this genus, for the time being we follow E. Parmasto in distinguishing these morphotypes at the level of forma. A key is presented to all species and forms.
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