This work investigates the phylogenetic relationships within Grimmia Hedw. using 33 species of Grimmia and ten outgroup species from the Funariidae and the Dicranidae using a combination of two molecular markers and 52 morphological and anatomical characters. Plastid (trnL-trnF and rps4) DNA sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of Grimmia. The 33 chosen Grimmia species represented the majority of those found in Europe and Asia. An analysis using rps4 and trnL-trnF with six outgroup species supported the monophyly of the Grimmiaceae. The combined analysis of both plastid markers and morphological characters also resolved the Grimmiaceae as monophyletic. The results indicate that Grimmia, as currently defined, is paraphyletic. Two main clades were present, one that contained the species traditionally placed in the subgenus Rhabdogrimmia Limpr. and one that contained the remaining Grimmia species.
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