Phylogenetic analyses of the Hypnales usually show the same picture of poorly resolved trees with a large number of polyphyletic taxa and low support for the few reconstructed clades. One odd clade, however, consisting of three genera that are currently treated either within the Leskeaceae (Miyabea) or Neckeraceae (Homaliadelphus and Bissetia), was retrieved in a previously published phylogeny based on chloroplast rbcL. In order to elucidate the reliability of the observed Homaliadelphus - Miyabea - Bissetia -clade (HMB-clade) and to reveal its phylogenetic relationships a molecular study based on a representative set of hypnalean taxa was performed. Sequence data from all three genomes, namely the ITS1 and 2 (nuclear), the trnS-rps4-trnT-trnL-trnF cluster (plastid), the nad5 intron (mitochondrial), were analyzed. Although the phylogenetic reconstruction of the combined data set was not fully resolved regarding the backbone it clearly indicated the polyphyletic nature of various hypnalean families, such as the Leskeaceae, Hypnaceae, Hylocomiaceae, Neckeraceae, Leptodontaceae and Anomodontaceae with respect to the included taxa. In addition the results favor the inclusion of the Leptodontaceae and Thamnobryaceae in the Neckeraceae. The maximally supported HMB-clade consisting of the three genera Homaliadelphus (2–3 species), Miyabea (3 species) and Bissetia (1 species) is resolved sister to a so far unnamed clade comprising Taxiphyllum aomoriense, Glossadelphus ogatae and Leptopterigynandrum. The well-resolved and supported HMB-clade, here formally described as the Miyabeaceae, fam. nov. is additionally supported by morphological characters such as strongly incrassate, porose leaf cells, a relatively weak and diffuse costa and the presence of dwarf males. The latter are absent in the Neckeraceae and the Leskeaceae. It is essentially an East Asian family, with one species occurring in North America.
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