We inferred phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches for two genera of lichenized fungi, Hypogymnia and Cavernularia (Parmeliaceae). Based on the combined ITS and GPD1 dataset from 23 species (49 specimens) of Hypogymnia and two species (8 specimens) of Cavernularia, we conclude that Hypogymnia is paraphyletic, and that it should include Cavernularia to retain its monophyly. Hypogymnia hultenii ( = Cavernularia hultenii) and H. lophyrea ( = C. lophyrea) are accepted here. Five species of Hypogymnia represented by more than a single individual were found to be monophyletic and significantly supported. The phylogeny reflects a statistically significant biogeographic pattern where continental-scale endemic taxa tend to occur within the same phylogenetic group. Sorediate taxa, which have worldwide or broader geographical ranges than affiliated species lacking soredia, are spread across the phylogenetic tree. Hypogymnia contains three species pairs: H. krogiae and the sorediate counterpart H. incurvoides, H. minilobata and the sorediate H. mollis, and H. lophyrea and the sorediate H. hultenii. In the case of H. minilobata, both members of the pair are restricted to a small area in southern California. In the other two cases, the fertile counterpart occurs only in North America, while the sorediate species occurs in both North America and Fennoscandia. This suggests but not proves an origin of each species pair in North America, with migration of the sorediate member to Fennoscandia following the prevailing wind direction.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 114 • No. 2