Eight Syntrichia species are reported for the first time from several South American countries with distribution and taxonomic notes. Syntrichia andicola, S. breviseta, S. napoana, S. percarnosa and S. robusta are reported for the first time from Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela and Ecuador, respectively. Syntrichia lacerifolia is reported for the first time from Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. Syntrichia amphidiacea and S. scabrinervis are added to the bryophyte flora of Argentina. Three new synonyms are proposed: Syntrichia gromschii, S. campestris and S. scabrella for S. serrulata, S. princeps and S. flagellaris, respectively. A new combination is proposed: S. berthoana, to accommodate one species previously assigned to Tortula. Lectotypes for Tortula campestris and T. scabrella currently included in Syntrichia are designated here. Syntrichia scabrinervis is excluded from the moss flora of Bolivia.
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