Coneworms, Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are destructive pests of conifers across North America, and members of several different species groups present significant pestmanagement challenges in conifer seed orchards. Dioryctria abietivorella Grote (abietella group) is the most pestiferous Dioryctria species in Canada. Despite this status, control tactics are currently limited to broad-spectrum pesticides that threaten non-target species and may result in pesticide resistance. The development of integrated pest management programs targeting Dioryctria species will benefit from a conceptual framework on which to base future research. To create this structure, we review the systematics, evolutionary ecology, and management of cone-feeding North American Dioryctria species. Current research suggests that many species boundaries are in need of further revision. Major gaps in our understanding of Dioryctria ecology impede the development of integrated pest management tactics. For example, host-generated semiochemicals are important in Dioryctria reproduction, although the uses of these cues in host-finding and host acceptance remain unknown. Future research should identify factors that mediate population distribution at landscape (e.g., migration), local (e.g., feeding stimulants), and temporal (e.g., development thresholds) scales.
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