White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) in Texas are separated into four subspecies primarily based on morphological variation. However, problems differentiating the subspecies by morphological measurements alone and a recent range expansion have led to questions about their systematic status and population structure. We evaluated both morphological characters and a 289 base-pair segment of the mitochondrial control region from 183 White-winged Doves taken from 31 locations in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Twenty-seven variable base changes were observed, which resulted in 44 haplotypes. An analysis of haplotypes yielded little phylogenetic signal; however, analyses of haplotype frequencies indicated geographic heterogeneity between doves collected in the four historic subspecies ranges. Doves from the range expansion areas were intermediate in size and genetically homogenous. Morphological analyses suggested congruency between control region variation and body size. Our data support the recognition of two subspecies of White-winged Doves with a zone of intergradation in the range expansion areas. The dispersal of White-winged Doves into the expansion areas appears to be a congruent process by both subspecies.
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