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1 February 2004 LOW FREQUENCY OF EXTRA-PAIR PATERNITY AND HIGH FREQUENCY OF ADOPTION IN BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKES
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Abstract

We studied the timing and frequency of extra-pair copulations and extra-pair fertilizations in the Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a socially monogamous seabird that breeds in dense colonies. We recorded 313 copulations by 82 marked pairs in 25 000 nest-hr over three years. We recorded only two extra-pair copulations, both of which were obtained by opportunistic males that disrupted pair copulations in progress. Pairs performed a mean of 14 copulations per clutch suggesting that males may copulate relatively frequently for paternity assurance. Our parentage analysis based on eight microsatellite markers did not detect any extra-pair paternity in 119 offspring from 86 broods; however we did detect three cases of adoption caused by chicks moving to adjacent nests. The between-nest movement of a minimum of 8% of chicks suggests that escaping siblicide may be an adaptive strategy for some nestlings, despite the risk of falling into the sea and drowning (observed in 11 of 21 chicks).

Baja Frecuencia de Paternidad Extra-Pareja y Alta Frecuencia de Adopción en Rissa tridactyla

Resumen. Estudiamos la frecuencia de cópulas y fertilizaciones extra-pareja y el momento en que éstas ocurrieron en Rissa tridactyla, un ave marina socialmente monógama que se reproduce en colonias densas. Registramos 313 cópulas por parte de 82 parejas marcadas en 25 000 horas-nido a través de tres años. Registramos sólo dos cópulas extra-pareja, ambas obtenidas por machos oportunistas que perturbaron cópulas que se estaban efectuando entre miembros de una pareja. Las parejas realizaron un promedio de 14 cópulas por nidada, lo que sugiere que los machos estarían copulando frecuentemente para asegurar su paternidad. Nuestros análisis basados en ocho marcadores microsatélites no detectaron ninguna instancia de paternidad extra-pareja en 119 crías de 86 nidadas. Sin embargo, detectamos tres casos de adopción causados por el movimiento de pichones a nidos adyacentes. El movimiento entre nidos de al menos el 8% de los pichones sugiere que escapar del siblicidio podría ser una estrategia adaptativa para algunos de éstos, a pesar del riesgo de caer al mar y ahogarse, lo que se observó en 11 de 21 pichones.

Fabrice Helfenstein, Claire Tirard, Etienne Danchin, and Richard H. Wagner "LOW FREQUENCY OF EXTRA-PAIR PATERNITY AND HIGH FREQUENCY OF ADOPTION IN BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKES," The Condor 106(1), 149-155, (1 February 2004). https://doi.org/10.1650/7337
Received: 14 April 2003; Accepted: 1 September 2003; Published: 1 February 2004
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