We studied the breeding biology of the Yellow-shouldered Parrot (Amazona barbadensis) on Margarita Island from March-August, 1990 to 1999. The timing of the different phases (egg-laying, hatching, fledging) was consistent over the years, except during 1998 when all phases were delayed. The average clutch size was 3.38 ± 0.78 eggs per nest, with a range of one to five eggs per clutch, and most eggs survived until hatching (3.36 ± 0.80 eggs per nest). Total clutch size and hatching success of this species on Margarita Island are among the highest in the genus Amazona, suggesting the Yellow-shouldered Parrot has a higher reproductive potential than other species of the genus. We detected interannual differences for some of the reproductive parameters, all in 1998, a year with an extreme drought. Egg losses totaled 20% and were caused by hatching failure, predation, and human disturbance. Forty-nine percent of nestlings were lost, mainly due to poaching. The number of fledglings per nesting pair averaged 1.27 ± 1.61, but varied greatly among years. Thus, in relation to the average total clutch laid, each pair lost an average of 62% of its initial reproductive investment.
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Vol. 108 • No. 1