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1 May 2006 VARIATION OF WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY PREVALENCE IN MIGRATING AND WINTERING HAWKS IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA
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Abstract

To assess the extent of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure of migrating (Marin Headlands) and wintering (Central Valley) hawks in California, plasma from 271 Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 19 Red-shouldered Hawks (B. lineatus), and 30 Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) was tested for WNV antibodies during the winter of 2004–2005. WNV antibodies were found in 5% of migrating and 15% of wintering Red-tailed Hawks, 20% of migrating and 58% of wintering Red-shouldered Hawks, and 13% of migrating Cooper's Hawks. No individuals demonstrated visible signs of WNV illness. Red-tailed Hawks that tested positive for WNV antibodies displayed no difference from Red-tailed Hawks without WNV antibodies in weight to wing chord ratio or white blood cell counts. In the Central Valley, WNV antibodies were significantly more prevalent in Red-shouldered Hawks than in Red-tailed Hawks. Significantly more Red-tailed Hawks sampled on wintering grounds tested positive for WNV antibodies than Red-tailed Hawks sampled during migration.

Joshua Hull, Holly Ernest, Joshua Hull, Angus Hull, William Reisen, Ying Fang, and Holly Ernest "VARIATION OF WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY PREVALENCE IN MIGRATING AND WINTERING HAWKS IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA," The Condor 108(2), (1 May 2006). https://doi.org/10.1650/0010-5422(2006)108[435:VOWNVA]2.0.CO;2
Received: 14 July 2005; Accepted: 1 February 2006; Published: 1 May 2006
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