The Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis) is a threatened species in Canada due to an annual decline of ∼3% over the last 50 yr. Some studies suggest that Canada Warblers prefer old-growth forest and that forestry practices may reduce suitable habitat, while other research indicates that the species will also use harvested areas. Differences in scale between habitat use studies and behavioral phenomena such as conspecific attraction may explain this discrepancy. We examined how Canada Warblers responded to forestry and conspecifics in Alberta, Canada. We used point counts, burst sampling, and behavioral observations to determine how the density, home range placement (second-order habitat use), within-home-range space use (third-order habitat use), and probability of pairing and fledging young of male Canada Warblers were influenced by postharvest conditions (i.e. amount, age [≤ 30 yr postharvest], and retention of unharvested fragments) and conspecifics. Male density was 86% lower in postharvest than in unharvested stands. However, males were 16.6 times more likely to place their home ranges in postharvest stands within 100 m of unharvested stands than 300 m into harvested areas, and 3 times more likely to place their home ranges 100 m from conspecifics than 300 m away. Within-home-range space use was 1.1 times higher 50 m from conspecifics than 350 m away, and 2.6 times higher 300 m from an edge than 100 m away. Use of harvested areas did not affect reproductive activity, but the probability of pairing was 1.8 times higher for males in low-density (2 males per 17.3 ha) than in high-density areas (7 males per 17.3 ha). Our results suggest that Canada Warbler use of postharvest stands on the boreal breeding grounds is more heavily influenced by conspecifics than by postharvest conditions. Because Canada Warbler territories are clustered, conservation efforts should prioritize the retention of large tracts of unharvested forest near occupied breeding sites.
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