The southern African species of Parabuthus Pocock 1890 are reviewed. Twenty valid species are recognized and an illustrated key is provided for their identification. The diagnosis of each species is revised, its known distributional range summarized, and notes on its ecology and conservation provided. Three species are redescribed and their distributions mapped: P. calvus Purcell 1898; P. capensis (Ehrenberg 1831); P. planicauda (Pocock 1896). Six new synonyms are proposed: Buthus brevimanus var. β segnis Thorell 1876 = P. granulatus (Ehrenberg 1831); Buthus villosus var. β dilutus Thorell 1876 = P. raudus (Simon 1888); P. granulatus strenuus Hewitt 1918 = P. granulatus (Ehrenberg 1831); P. capensis frenchi Purcell 1901 = P. planicauda (Pocock 1889); Scorpio teter Müller 1828 = P. transvaalicus Purcell 1899; P. brachystylus Lawrence 1928 = P. villosus (Peters 1862). Two species, synonymized by previous authors, but subsequently resurrected, are returned to synonymy: P. neglectus Purcell 1899 = P. capensis (Ehrenberg 1831), first synonymized by Kraepelin (1908); P. flavidus Pocock 1899 = P. mossambicensis (Peters 1861), first synonymized by Kraepelin (1914).
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