The withiid genus Parawithius Chamberlin is rediagnosed, based upon a detailed examination of the type species, P. nobilis (With) from Colombia, which is redescribed and illustrated. The subgenus Parawithius (Victorwithius) Feio is returned to full generic level. Cystowithius, a new genus of Withiidae, is described from high elevation localities in central and South America for four species: Cystowithius smithersi new species (type species) from Ecuador, C. ecuadoricus (Beier) new combination, from Ecuador and Peru, C. colombicus new species from Colombia, and C. chamberlini new species from Mexico and Guatemala. Males of Cystowithius are highly unusual due to the presence of sternal invaginations, a feature that has not been previously observed in pseudoscorpions. Populations of Cystowithius smithersi occur within the leaf sheaths of the giant rosette plant Espeletia pycnophylla var. angelensis (Compositae).
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