A review of the pseudoscorpion genus Oreolpium Benedict & Malcolm reveals two species, the type species O. nymphum Benedict & Malcolm 1978 from northwestern USA and O. semotum, new species, from southern Tasmania. Oreolpium is most similar to Neominniza Beier, Thaumatolpium Beier and Teratolpium Beier from South America, and to Protogarypinus Beier from southern Australia. These genera are confirmed as members of Garypinidae, and both species of Oreolpium are found to lack glandular setae on sternites VI–VIII, which is an unusual feature for Garypinidae. Oreolpium demonstrates a remarkable bipolar distribution, similar to that of the pseudoscorpion groups Pseudotyrannochthoniidae, Pseudogarypidae and Syarininae, and to several water mite taxa.
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