The flagellar apparatus of Ploeotia costata Farmer and Triemer was reconstructed using serial sectioning and TEM. The flagellar apparatus is similar to other euglenoids having two flagella arising from basal bodies connected by a striated fiber, and three asymmetrically arranged roots. The flagella emerge subapically from between the two ventral pellicle strips. The dorsal flagellum is 1/2 the body length and actively pulls the cell, while the ventral flagellum is twice the body length and drags along the substrate surface. The ventral and dorsal roots are on the opposite sides of their respective basal bodies, while the intermediate root is associated with the ventral flagellum on the side closest to the dorsal basal body. The dorsal root lines the dorsal side of the reservoir and after giving rise to the dorsal band lines the right side of the reservoir/canal. The ventral and intermediate roots join at the reservoir forming the intermediate-ventral root, which lines the left and ventral sides of the reservoir/canal. There was no evidence of a microtubule-reinforced pocket in P. costata. Comparisons with Ploeotia vitrea, Lentomonas applanatum, and related flagellar apparatuses led to the conclusion that the basic euglenoid flagellar structure is symplesiomorphic but with enough variation to be taxonomically diagnostic.
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