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1 July 2002 Life Cycle, Ultrastructure and Molecular Phylogeny of Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae), a parasite of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and Orthocyclops modestus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae)
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Abstract

The complete life cycle of the microsporidium Hyalinocysta chapmani is described from the primary mosquito host Culiseta melanura and the intermediate copepod host Orthocyclops modestus. Infections are initiated in larval C. melanura following the oral ingestion of uninucleate spores from infected copepods. Spores germinate within the lumen of the midgut and directly invade fat body tissue where all development occurs. Uninucleated schizonts undergo binary division (schizogony) followed by karyokinesis (nuclear division) to form diplokaryotic meronts. Merogony is by synchronous binary division. The onset of sporogony is characterized by the simultaneous secretion of a sporophorous vesicle and meiotic division of the diplokaryon resulting in the formation of eight ovoid meiospores enclosed within a sporophorous vesicle. Most infected larvae die during the fourth stadium and there is no evidence of a developmental sequence leading to vertical transmission. Hyalinocysta chapmani is horizontally transmitted to O. modestus via oral ingestion of meiospores. Infections become established within ovarian tissue of females and all parasite development is haplophasic. Uninucleate schizonts divide by binary division during an initial schizogonic cycle. Newly formed uninucleate cells produce a thin sporophorous vesicle and undergo repeated nuclear division during sporogony to produce a rosette-shaped, multinucleated sporogonial plasmodium with up to 18 nuclei. This is followed by cytoplasmic cleavage, sporogenesis, and disintegration of the sporophorous vesicle to form membrane-free uninucleate spores. Infected females eventually die and there is no egg development. The small subunit rDNA sequence of H. chapmani isolated from meiospores from C. melanura was identical to the small subunit rDNA sequence obtained from spores from O. modestus, corroborating the laboratory transmission studies and confirming the intermediary role of O modestus in the life cycle. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with closely related microsporidia from mosquitoes. Hyalinocysta chapmani did not cluster within described Amblyospora species and can be considered a sister group, warranting separate genus status.

THEODORE G. ANDREADIS and CHARLES R. VOSSBRINCK "Life Cycle, Ultrastructure and Molecular Phylogeny of Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae), a parasite of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and Orthocyclops modestus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae)," The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 49(4), 350-364, (1 July 2002). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2002.tb00382.x
Received: 21 February 2002; Accepted: 21 May 2002; Published: 1 July 2002
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