Open Access
Translator Disclaimer
1 December 2014 New Geographical Records for the Threatened Butterfly Actinote quadra (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae)
Victor Gomes, Giselle M. Lourenço, Déborah Soldati, Cristiano A. Iserhard, Thadeu S. Souza, Lucas A. Kaminski, André V. L. Freitas
Author Affiliations +

Most species in the genus Actinote (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini) are associated with forest edges, clearings and secondary vegetation, commonly found in high densities in disturbed habitats all over the Neotropics, especially in altitudes from 600 to 1200 m (Francini 1989, 1992; Francini & Freitas 2010; Paluch 2006). Some species, however, are rare, presenting small restricted populations associated with pristine and undisturbed habitats (Francini et al. 2004, 2005, 2011; Freitas et al. 2009, 2010; Freitas 2010). Two of them, namely Actinote zikani D'Almeida, 1951 (critically endangered) and Actinote quadra (Schaus, 1902) (vulnerable) (Fig. 1) are included in the most recent Brazilian red list of endangered fauna (Machado et al. 2008; Freitas & Brown 2008a,b) and in the ‘National action Plan for conservation of Brazilian Lepidoptera’ (a recent document containing revised and updated information on Brazilian endangered species; Freitas & Marini-Filho 2011). In the last two decades, efforts to increase the knowledge about Brazilian threatened butterflies resulted in valuable new information of about 10 butterfly species (see above, Kerpel et al. 2014, Freitas et al. 2014 and references therein). One of them is a detailed study of A. quadra (Freitas et al. 2009) that listed the 12 sites where this species has been recorded, as well as data on natural history and immature stages.

Since then, four new sites for A. quadra have been recorded by different research groups in Southeastern Brazil, increasing the number of localities where it occurs to 16 (Figure 2). The new sites (with number of adults collected and/or observed) were the following (see also Fig. 2): 1) Santo Antônio do Pinhal (22°49′26″S 45°37′37″W, 1200 m), São Paulo state, 4 males, 20.xi.2013, T. S. Souza leg. (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (ZUEC), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil); 2) Serra do Rola Moça (20°3′29.90″S 44°00′6.20″W, 1474 m), Brumadinho, Minas Gerais state, 1 male, 29.xi.2012. S.P.A. Franco leg. (UFMG taxonomic collection, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil); 3) Mina de Capanema (20°10′22.2″S 43°36′58.2″W, 1329 m), Santa Bárbara, Minas Gerais state, 6 males and 1 female, 3-5.iv.2011, V.A.A. Gomes & C.H.I. Costa leg, Mcn-inv 2094-2100 (Invertebrates Collection - Museu de Ciências Naturais, PUC-MG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil); additional males and females were observed flying around and perching on vegetation (ca. 2 m high); 4) Vale Verde (20°25′7″S 41°50′56″W, 1200–1300 m), Parque Nacional do Caparaó (Caparaó National Park), Alto Caparaó, Minas Gerais, 1 male and 1 female (Fig. 1), 9-15.xii.2011. A. V. L. Freitas, C. A. Iserhard & L. A. Kaminski, leg. (ZUEC); additional seven males and two females were observed flying high (ca. 3–5 meters above ground).

Fig. 1.

Male (left) and female (right) of Actinote quadra from Parque Nacional do Caparaó, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil (dorsal above, ventral below). See text for additional information.

f01_289.jpg

Fig. 2.

Map showing the 14 known localities for Actinote quadra in Southeastern Brazil. The solid black circles represents the 12 previously known localities for A. quadra (see Freitas et al. 2009), and open circles represents the 4 new localities. 1. Santo Antonio do Pinhal, São Paulo; 2. Serra do Rola Moça, Brumadinho, Minas Gerais; 3. Mina de Capanema, Santa Bárbara, Minas Gerais; 4. Parque Nacional do Caparaó, Alto Caparaó, Minas Gerais.

f02_289.jpg

All four new sites for A. quadra are above 1200 m a.s.l., and agree with the previous altitudinal pattern recorded for this species (above 800 m, Freitas et al. 2009). Two of these new sites (sites 1 and 2) are very close to previously known sites. They were considered new sites, however, because in both cases the new site is in a different slope of the mountain range, being isolated from the neighbor site by low valleys where the species didn't occur (distribution is not continuous). The other two sites (sites 3 and 4), however, characterize new distributional data for this species, with Caparaó (site 4) representing an expansion in A. quadra distribution of about 100 km northeast from its previously known limit (the region of Rosário de Limeira, Minas Gerais, see Freitas et al. 2009), and also one additional conservation unity where this species occurs. The presence of this species in the Caparaó National Park also reinforces the importance of this place as the northernmost refuge for all montane species occurring in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, as recently confirmed for other butterfly species (Freitas et al. 2004 and unpublished results). The improvement of distributional data is required for an adequate assessment of the real conservation status of a threatened species, and the detection of additional populations of threatened butterfly species, both inside and outside conservation unities, is a priority in Brazil (Freitas & Marini-Filho 2011). The present findings are very encouraging since this information suggests that additional populations of A. quadra might occur is several other localities with similar conditions, including the full region of Serra da Mantiqueira and montane forests of Minas Gerais. The use of modelling to predict the potential distribution of this species may corroborate this idea, configuring a much more optimistic scenario for the conservation of A. quadra.

Acknowledgments

We thank Waldomiro de Paula Lopes, who facilitated the work in the Parque Nacional do Caparaó, Léo Nascimento, who facilitated the work in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, ICMBio for the research permits (SISBIO n° 10802-5), and Ricardo Campos and the Field Ecology Course of “Universidade Federal de Viçosa” for the logistic support. AVLF thanks the Brazilian Research Council—CNPq (fellowship 302585/2011-7), and the National Science Foundation (DEB-1256742). LAK was supported by FAPESP (10/51340-8) and CNPq (163119/2013-9). CAI was supported by FAPESP (2011/08433-8). This publication is part of the RedeLep “Rede Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Lepidópteros” SISBIOTA-Brasil/CNPq (563332/2010-7), and of the BIOTA-FAPESP Program (11/50225-3).

Literature Cited

1.

R. B. Francini 1989. Biologia e ecologia das borboletas Actinote (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Acraeinae) na transição subtropical no sudeste do Brasil. MSc Dissertation. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. 236 pp. Google Scholar

2.

R. B. Francini 1992. Ecologia das taxocenoses de Actinote (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) em Asteraceae (Angiosperma: Magnoliatae) no sudeste do Brasil: subsídios para conservação. PhD Thesis. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. 194 pp. Google Scholar

3.

R. B. Francini & A. V. L. Freitas 2010. Aggregated oviposition in Actinote pellenea pellenea Hübner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). J. Res. Lepid. 42: 74–78. Google Scholar

4.

R. B. Francini , A. V. L. Freitas & C. Penz . 2004. Two new species of Actinote (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) from Southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 719: 1–10. Google Scholar

5.

R. B. Francini , A. V. L. Freitas & K. S. Brown Jr. 2005. Rediscovery of Actinote zikani (D'Almeida) (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Acraeini): natural history, population biology and conservation of an endangered butterfly in SE Brazil. J. Lepid. Soc. 59: 134–142. Google Scholar

6.

R. B. Francini , E. P. Barbosa & A. V. L. Freitas . 2011. Immature stages of Actinote zikani (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), a critically endangered butterfly from southeastern Brazil. Trop. Lepid. Res. 21: 20–26. Google Scholar

7.

A. V. L. Freitas 2010. Impactos potenciais das mudanças propostas no Código Florestal Brasileiro sobre as borboletas. Biota Neotropica 10: 53–58. Google Scholar

8.

A. V. L. Freitas & K. S. Brown Jr. 2008a. Actinote quadra , p. 402–403. In A. B. M. MacHado , G. M. M. Drummond & A. P. Paglia (Eds.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Brasília, DF: MMA; Belo Horizonte, MG: Fundação Biodiversitas. Google Scholar

9.

A. V. L. Freitas & K. S. Brown Jr. 2008b. Actinote zikani , p. 403–404. In A. B. M. MacHado , G. M. M. Drummond & A. P. Paglia (Eds.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção, Brasília, DF: MMA; Belo Horizonte, MG: Fundação Biodiversitas. Google Scholar

10.

A. V. L. Freitas & O. J. Marini-Filho (ORGS). 2011. Plano de ação nacional para a conservação dos lepidópteros ameaçados de extinção. Série Espécies Ameaçadas n° 13. ICMBio, Brasília, Brasil. 124 pp. Google Scholar

11.

A. V. L. Freitas , R. B. Francini & T. S. Souza . 2009. Immature stages and natural history of the threatened butterfly Actinote quadra (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini). Trop. Lepid. Res. 19: 83–88. Google Scholar

12.

A. V. L. Freitas , E. P. Barbosa & R. B. Francini . 2010. Immature stages of the butterfly Actinote conspicua (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini). Trop. Lep. Res. 20: 100–104. Google Scholar

13.

A. V. L. Freitas , L. A. Kaminski , C. A. Iserhard , L. M. Magaldi , N. Wahlberg , K. L. Silva-Brandão & O. H. H. Mielke . 2014. Paulogramma hydarnis (n. comb.) (Nymphalidae: Biblidinae): distribution, systematic position, and conservation status of a rare and endangered butterfly. Neotrop. Entomol. 43: 218–226. Google Scholar

14.

S. M. Kerpel , A. Ferreira-Junior & A. V. L. Freitas . 2014. New record of the endangered Brazilian swallowtail Heraclides himeros baia (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906). J. Lepid. Soc. 68: 145–146. Google Scholar

15.

A. B. M. Machado , G. M. Drummond & A. P. Paglia . 2008. Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. MMA, Brasília, 1420 pp. Google Scholar

16.

M. Paluch 2006. Revisão das espécies de Actinote Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Acraeini). PhD Thesis. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. XIX+410 pp. Google Scholar
Victor Gomes, Giselle M. Lourenço, Déborah Soldati, Cristiano A. Iserhard, Thadeu S. Souza, Lucas A. Kaminski, and André V. L. Freitas "New Geographical Records for the Threatened Butterfly Actinote quadra (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae)," The Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 68(4), 289-292, (1 December 2014). https://doi.org/10.18473/lepi.v68i4.a10
Received: 2 June 2014; Accepted: 24 July 2014; Published: 1 December 2014
JOURNAL ARTICLE
4 PAGES


Share
SHARE
KEYWORDS
Acraeini
Atlantic Rain Forest
conservation
montane butterflies
Serra da Mantiqueira
RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS
Get copyright permission
Back to Top