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1 December 2005 GERMINATION OF NATIVE AND EXOTIC PLANT SEEDS DISPERSED BY COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
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Abstract
Seeds collected from coyote scats in southern California were tested for germination. Eighteen of 38 plant species germinated. Native species that germinated included Arctostaphylos glauca, Arctostaphylos sp., Heteromeles arbutifolia, Opuntia littoralis, Prosopis glandulosa, Prunus ilicifolia, and Washingtonia filifera. Exotic species that germinated included Annona cherimola, Cucumis sp., Ficus sp., Lycopersicon esculentum, Panicum miliaceum, Phoenix sp., Prunus sp., and Pyracantha sp. Additional species thought to be exotic that germinated were Fragaria sp., Vitis sp., and an unidentified species. Compared to seeds directly off the plant, O. littoralis germinated significantly more frequently following passage through coyotes, whereas H. arbutifolia germinated significantly less often. Although coyotes are dispersing exotic plant seeds in viable condition, none of the seeds identified in this study were considered invasive.
and Robin P. Silverstein "GERMINATION OF NATIVE AND EXOTIC PLANT SEEDS DISPERSED BY COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA," The Southwestern Naturalist 50(4), (1 December 2005). https://doi.org/10.1894/0038-4909(2005)050[0472:GONAEP]2.0.CO;2
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