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1 March 2001 Goal-Directed Use of Objects by American Crows
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Abstract

I report the intentional use of objects by American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) in the contexts of foraging, nestling defense and play.

Carolee Caffrey "Goal-Directed Use of Objects by American Crows," The Wilson Bulletin 113(1), 114-115, (1 March 2001). https://doi.org/10.1676/0043-5643(2001)113[0114:GDUOOB]2.0.CO;2
Received: 2 June 2000; Accepted: 1 January 2001; Published: 1 March 2001
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