Diet studies provide information about a species' ecology, evolution, and behavior. The Araripe Manakin (Antilophia bokermanni) is a critically endangered, endemic, and sexually dichromatic species from northeastern Brazil. Little is known about its natural history, and as an endangered bird, information about diet may be crucial for conservation plans. We analyzed the diet of Araripe Manakins and tested if food items and foraging behavior differed for males and females. We caught and banded birds, and analyzed fecal samples. Using focal observations, we collected foraging behavioral data, including vegetation strata used, foraging bout duration and gathering method. Based on data gathered from 40 females and 54 males, we found that the Araripe Manakins' diet contains both plant and animal items including 10 different types of fruits and three orders of invertebrates. Clidemia biserrata was the most important plant item consumed, representing 80% of the diet. There was a substantial overlap of 68% of food items in the diets between sexes, which did not differ statistically. However, male and female diets were unique in some aspects: females consumed more items having a more diverse diet when compared to males. Males, however, consumed more Coleoptera, and these were the second most important item in their diets. Since male and female foraging behavior does not differ, this result suggests that males choose to consume more beetles perhaps to maintain plumage color, since beetles are rich in carotenoids. Results also provide important data about which plants can be used in the management or recovery of Araripe Manakins' habitats.
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