Lack of information about basic life history traits of endangered species hinders conservation efforts, since such data have important implications for species' long-term survival. Little is known about the reproductive biology, ecology, and behavior of the Araripe Manakin (Antilophia bokermanni), despite its highly threatened status in Brazil. In this study, we provide detailed information about the Araripe Manakin's breeding biology and discuss ecological factors that affected nest survival rates across 3 breeding seasons. Females lay 1- or 2-egg clutches and may attempt renesting if the nest fails. The open-cup nests are built in the forking branches of 14 different identified plant species. The Araripe Manakin's nesting period corresponds to the rainy season of approximately 6 months, and its annual reproductive capacity is 2 fledglings. Nesting success of the species was high (72%) compared to other Neotropical species with similar nests, but varied across seasons and sampled areas. Fewer nests were associated with periods of less rainfall, more fragmented forest areas, and areas with higher rates of human activity. The shape of the nest also seemed relevant for nest success, where external diameter of the nest appeared to play an important role. Only females provided parental care in all nesting stages and no differences were found in parental investment between nests with 1 or 2 nestlings. We believe our findings are crucial for future population viability analyses and effective conservation strategies. We argue that although these results point toward this species' critical situation, they also suggest its intrinsic resilience.
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