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1 April 2005 Alaskan brown bears, humans, and habituation
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Abstract

We present a new paradigm for understanding habituation and the role it plays in brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations and interactions with humans in Alaska. We assert that 3 forms of habituation occur in Alaska: bear-to-bear, bear-to-human, and human-to-bear. We present data that supports our theory that bear density is an important factor influencing a bear's overt reaction distance (ORD); that as bear density increases, overt reaction distance decreases, as does the likelihood of bear–human interactions. We maintain that the effects of bear-to-bear habituation are largely responsible for not only shaping bear aggregations but also for creating the relatively safe environment for bear viewing experienced at areas where there are high densities of brown bears. By promoting a better understanding of the forces that shape bear social interactions within populations and with humans that mingle with them, we can better manage human activities and minimize bear–human conflict.

Tom S. Smith, Stephen Herrero, and Terry D. DeBruyn "Alaskan brown bears, humans, and habituation," Ursus 16(1), 1-10, (1 April 2005). https://doi.org/10.2192/1537-6176(2005)016[0001:ABBHAH]2.0.CO;2
Received: 9 December 2003; Accepted: 1 December 2004; Published: 1 April 2005
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