In Japan, the habitat range of Long-billed Plovers (Charadrius placidus), a typical river-nesting species, has contracted by 17% over the past 20 years. In the Tama River, Kanto region, the Tama River Research Group created a gravel bar in 2001 and 2002 by removing an invasive and non-native woody plant, Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), to restore the biodiversity of the river ecosystem. The study investigated the effect of the gravel bar creation on Long-billed Plovers and their nest-site preference during the breeding seasons in 2001–2004 and 2006. After gravel bar creation, the mean number (±SE) of observed Long-billed Plovers increased from 0.4 (±0.19) to 11.0 (±1.54), which indicates that artificially constructed habitats have a potential to restore populations of Long-billed Plovers. The hatching rates in the study site varied greatly (19% to 100%) from year to year, and comparison with earlier studies was difficult due to incomplete information about the breeding conditions and differences in survey methods. Nesting probability was affected negatively by gravel size and positively by distances from forest edges, even after considering spatial auto-correlation caused as a result of having continuous sampling grids.
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