Sarus Cranes (Antigone antigone) in south Asia breed during the rainy season (monsoon), with few nests initiated outside of the monsoon. Several hypothesis have been put forth to explain the unseasonal nesting outside the monsoon, but a careful evaluation of the hypotheses has been absent. Using a multi-year (2004–2017), multi-scale (four Indian states) data set, this study explored the factors potentially responsible for unseasonal nesting by Sarus Cranes. Nests outside the monsoon were very rare (0.3% of all nests) and were initiated when Sarus Crane pairs were in areas with artificial water sources (irrigation canals or reservoirs) or faced abnormal monsoonal conditions. Unseasonal nests were initiated only when breeding pairs had been unsuccessful in raising chicks in the previous primary nesting season. Altered cropping patterns associated with increased artificial irrigation and changing rainfall patterns appear responsible for unseasonal nesting in Sarus Cranes. Nesting of this species outside the monsoon may increase in response to the increasing changes in cropping patterns and changing rainfall conditions.
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