Studies were conducted to develop a model from field and laboratory studies to predict the emergence phenology of Chenopodium album. A mechanistic model to predict the phenology of weed seedling emergence across locations, years, and tillage systems is presented. This was accomplished by the integration of hydrothermal time to describe germination and thermal time to describe shoot elongation. The interaction of soil moisture and temperature in the model was accounted for by the integration of hydrothermal time in algorithms predicting seed germination. Soil temperatures within the weed seed germination zone were predicted by temperature ranges at different depths in the soil. Emergence phenology of C. album seedlings was predicted with greater accuracy under no-till and moldboard plow systems than under a chisel plow system. We attributed this lower accuracy in the chisel plow system to increased heterogeneity in the soil matrix and vertical distribution of the seedbank caused by the chisel plow. The presence or absence of Zea mays did not affect model performance. The use of soil temperature to calculate thermal time was a better predictor of C. album seedling emergence than air temperature. The ability to predict weed seedling emergence phenology is an important component of an integrated weed management strategy.
Nomenclature: Chenopodium album L. CHEAL, common lambsquarters.