Field studies were conducted in 1998 and 1999 to evaluate crop response, weed control, Glycine max yield, and economic returns with sulfentrazone alone and tank-mixed with glyphosate, cloransulam, or chlorimuron at two preplant application timings in no-till, narrow-row, glyphosate-resistant G. max. No significant crop injury was observed. Setaria faberi and Polygonum pensylvanicum control 5 wk after planting (WAP) was generally greater with sulfentrazone applied early preplant (EPP) than with sulfentrazone applied at planting (AP). When applied AP, glyphosate plus sulfentrazone provided greater S. faberi control than sulfentrazone alone. Control of Amaranthus rudis, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and Ipomoea hederacea was greater in 1998 than in 1999 because of more timely early-season precipitation. Sulfentrazone-based programs provided 80 to 100% control of A. rudis in 1998, but control in 1999 ranged from 72 to 95% at Columbia and 46 to 83% at Novelty. Cloransulam alone, at either application timing, was the only treatment that provided greater than 80% control of A. artemisiifolia at each site in each year. All sulfentrazone-based treatments provided greater than 80% control of I. hederacea in 1998, but control was less in 1999 and ranged from 54 to 91%. Xanthium strumarium control ranged from 5 to 94% with sulfentrazone alone; however, the addition of cloransulam or chlorimuron provided 75 to 99% control regardless of application timing. A blanket application of glyphosate was made 6 WAP over all preplant herbicide treatments, and weed control 5 wk after this treatment was greater than 79% with all sulfentrazone-based treatments. Sulfentrazone plus cloransulam or chlorimuron plus glyphosate EPP or AP followed by (fb) glyphosate postemergence (POST) generally provided the greatest weed control. Overall weed control was generally greater with the use of residual herbicides vs. glyphosate alone, although yield and net returns were not always greater. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if altering the preplant application timing reduced sulfentrazone injury to G. max. Treatment variables included herbicide rate, temperature during a preplant incubation period, and application timing. Glycine max, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor were used as indicator species. Sulfentrazone caused less injury to G. max, Z. mays, and S. bicolor in soils incubated at 30 C when applied 20 d before planting compared to 0 d before planting. Equivalent amounts of crop injury were noted with sulfentrazone applied 20 or 0 d before planting in soils incubated at 5 C with all indicator species.
Nomenclature: Chlorimuron, cloransulam, glyphosate, sulfentrazone; Xanthium strumarium L. XANST, common cocklebur; Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. AMBEL, common ragweed; Amaranthus rudis Sauer AMATA, common waterhemp; Setaria faberi Herrm. SETFA, giant foxtail; Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. IPOHE, ivyleaf morningglory; Polygonum pensylvanicum L. POLPY, Pennsylvania smartweed; Zea mays L. ‘Pioneer 3394’, corn; Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Asgrow 3601’, ‘Pioneer 9362, soybean; Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench’. ‘Pioneer 8500’, grain sorghum.