Populations of wild radish were collected from two fields in the northern Western Australian wheatbelt, where typical herbicide-use patterns had been practiced for the previous 17 seasons within an intensive crop production program. The herbicide resistance status of these populations clearly established that there was multiple-herbicide resistance across many herbicides from at least four modes of action. One population exhibited multiple-herbicide resistance to the phytoene desaturase (PDS)–inhibiting herbicide diflufenican (3.0-fold), the auxin analog herbicide 2,4-D (2.2-fold), and the photosystem II–inhibiting herbicides metribuzin and atrazine. Another population was found to be multiply resistant to the acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides, the PDS-inhibiting herbicide diflufenican (2.5-fold), and the auxin analog herbicide 2,4-D amine (2.4-fold). Therefore, each population has developed multiple-herbicide resistance across several modes of action. The multiple resistance status of these wild radish populations developed from conventional herbicide usage in intensive cropping rotations, indicating a dramatic challenge for the future control of wild radish.
Nomenclature: Atrazine; 2,4-D amine; diflufenican; metribuzin; wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum L.