Observational studies of weed emergence provide essential data for the creation and testing of predictive emergence models, with data ideally being collected from a wide range of sites representing a range of environments under which the seedlings of a given species emerge. The spring emergence of genetically engineered glyphosate-resistant volunteer canola was monitored in 20 farmers' commercial wheat fields over 2 yr, 2003 and 2004, in the southwestern region of Manitoba, Canada. Three different tillage systems, low-disturbance direct-seeded, high-disturbance direct-seeded, and conventionally tilled fields, were represented in this sample. Tillage system did not significantly influence the emergence periodicity of volunteer canola, but did influence total densities observed. Total volunteer canola densities in the surveyed fields were variable and ranged from 6 to 2,015 seedlings m−2. Conventionally tilled fields had the lowest densities of volunteer canola seedlings, and high-disturbance direct-seeded fields (no autumn tillage) had the highest densities. Volunteer canola is a relatively early spring emerging plant species requiring minimal accumulated growing degree days for emergence (calculated using a base temperature of 5 C). Emergence curves were steep, with a short window of volunteer canola emergence either prior to or within a spring-seeded wheat crop. To determine what proportion of autumn-broadcast canola seed (simulated harvest losses) would recruit the following spring and the influence of fall or spring tillage on this recruitment, a small plot experiment also was conducted at three sites. The following spring the percentage of canola seedlings that emerged ranged from 1.3 to 9.4% of the seed broadcast, depending upon the tillage treatment. The effect of tillage treatment on canola densities in the small plot experiment was similar to the field survey results.Nomenclature: Canola, Brassica napus L. BRSNS; spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. TRZAS.