The concept of integrated pest management (IPM) was first introduced in the 1960s. Since then many definitions of IPM have appeared in the literature. According to the 1988 U.S. National IPM Coordinating Committee, the primary goals of IPM programs are to reduce pesticide use and the subsequent environmental impact and to rely more on alternative strategies to control pests. Integrated weed management (IWM) comes under the umbrella of IPM with similar objectives of using multiple management tactics and incorporating the knowledge of weed biology and crop physiology into the weed management system. The goals of IWM range from maximizing profit margins to safeguarding natural resources and minimizing the negative impact of weed control practices on the environment. The acceptance of IWM by farmers will depend on their perceived risk to management, individual management capability, and environmental interactions that will influence the economic viability of the cropping system. We have been in this process of developing, integrating, and adopting potential IWM practices for the last 25 to 30 yr. However, strategic directions for research in the future must continue to discover opportunities for enhanced profitability and sustainability.
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Vol. 56 • No. 1