Nalta jute and redweed are widespread and significant broadleaf weed species of the tropics. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of various environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of these species. Light was not required for germination in either species. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting that inhibition of germination in these species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Scarified seeds of both species germinated over a wide range of alternating temperatures (25/15, 30/20, and 35/25 C). Both species were moderately tolerant of salt and osmotic stress, but nalta jute tolerated more stresses than redweed. Seedling emergence of nalta jute and redweed was greater than 87 and 93%, respectively, at soil depths of 0 to 2 cm but decreased as depth increased, with no emergence at 8 cm. Seedling emergence of both species was reduced by the addition of rice straw, though a high amount (4 to 6 t ha−1) of straw was required to suppress emergence significantly. The information gained from this study could facilitate the development of effective weed control programs.
Nomenclature: Nalta jute, Corchorus olitorius L.; redweed, Melochia concatenata L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.