Variation in primary dormancy among populations of black nightshade and hairy nightshade collected on two dates was investigated. In addition, emergence characteristics of both species were studied during 2 yr with several populations and soil disturbance regimes. Results revealed a variation in the level of primary dormancy among populations and collection dates in black nightshade. However, fresh seeds of hairy nightshade showed no or negligible germinability, indicating a deeper level of dormancy. Emergence was higher in black nightshade than in hairy nightshade in both years, but with significant differences among populations. In addition, various categories regarding the soil temperature requirements for seedling emergence were found within seed batches. This enables the species to extend their emergence timing and therefore escape from climatic extremes or weed control operations. This information can be used to improve weed management strategies by timing weed control measures to larger seedling flushes.
Nomenclature: Black nightshade, Solanum nigrum L., SOLNI; hairy nightshade, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, SOLSA.