Native to temperate South America, deeproot sedge has naturalized throughout the southeastern United States. Often forming dense, homogenous stands, deeproot sedge has become widespread, invasive, and potentially harmful ecologically throughout the coastal prairie ecoregion of Texas. Possessing characteristics (rapid growth, generalized habitat requirements) of other weedy congeners (purple nutsedge and yellow nutsedge), its relatively recent expansion highlights the critical need to develop effective control techniques and strategies for this species throughout this endangered ecoregion. Research was performed to delineate total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) trends in deeproot sedge rhizomes for development of a phenologically based schedule for herbicide applications and mechanical treatments. Overall, TNC levels were greatest in May to August and lowest from October to January, regardless of study area. Apparently, deeproot sedge exerts little energy into seed production because TNC levels were continually replenished throughout the growing season. As such, foliar-herbicide application throughout the growing season should achieve total plant kill. Conversely, deeproot sedge rhizome TNC levels never fell below 30%, even during winter, which indicates that winter mechanical treatments or winter prescribed fires will not be effective because substantial rhizome reserves are present to support resprouting during the next growing season. Beyond a priori prevention, sequential herbicide applications combined with integrated, sequential, prescribed fire and herbicide treatments will be needed for long-term deeproot sedge control throughout its geographic range.
Nomenclature: Deeproot sedge, Cyperus entrerianus Boeck; purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus L.; yellow nutsedge, Cyperus esculentus L.