Abstract: Greenhouse and growth chamber experiments were conducted to study glyphosate efficacy, rainfastness, absorption, and translocation in redvine. Glyphosate at 0, 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, and 4.48 kg ai/ha was applied to redvine plants raised from rootstocks at the five- to seven-leaf stage (about 25 cm tall). Redvine control ranged from 55% at 0.56 kg/ha glyphosate to 98% at 4.48 kg/ha. Glyphosate at rates above 1.12 kg/ha, greatly reduced regrowth from rootstocks of treated plants. A simulated rainfall of 2.5 cm (7.5 cm/h intensity) within 24 h of glyphosate application reduced efficacy by 23% compared with no simulated rainfall. Absorption of 14C-glyphosate in redvine increased from 1.8 to 21.9%, and translocation increased from 0.1 to 8.1% from 6 to 192 h after application, respectively. Translocation was both acropetal and basipetal, and by 96 h of exposure, the 14C radioactivity was widely distributed throughout the plant. Absorption and translocation was greatly affected by posttreatment temperature. Absorption and translocation were highest (34.9 and 10.6%, respectively) in plants maintained at 35/30 C (14/10 h, day/night), followed by 15/10 C (21.2 and 4.9%, respectively), and was lowest (7.8 and 1.6%, respectively) in plants maintained at 25/20 C. Results suggest that longer periods of leaf exposure to the herbicide and high temperatures could increase glyphosate absorption, translocation to redvine rootstocks, and subsequent control. These data also suggest that effective control of redvine in the field will require glyphosate rates higher than those recommended for use in glyphosate-resistant crops.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; isopropylamine salt; redvine, Brunnichia ovata (Walt.) Shinners #3 BRVCI.
Additional index words: Rainfastness, regrowth, temperature, uptake, BRVCI.
Abbreviations: HAA, hours after application; WAT, weeks after treatment.