Abstract: Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa) seed production and viability in early-maturing soybean (Glycine max) were evaluated following preharvest desiccation. The herbicide combinations 1.1 kg ai/ha glyphosate plus 6.7 kg ai/ha sodium chlorate, 2.2 kg/ha glyphosate plus 3.4 kg/ha sodium chlorate, and 0.3 kg ai/ha paraquat plus 6.7 kg/ha sodium chlorate reduced sicklepod germination, emergence, and seedling growth in most cases. Oxyfluorfen at 0.3 kg ai/ha plus 3.4 or 6.7 kg/ha sodium chlorate also reduced sicklepod germination and growth. Glufosinate from 0.8 to 1.4 kg ai/ha reduced sicklepod germination but did not have a consistent effect on other seedling growth parameters. Bromoxynil at 1.1 kg ai/ha plus 3.4 kg/ha sodium chlorate reduced sicklepod germination but did not have a consistent effect on most growth parameters. A wide range of treatments reduced hemp sesbania germination, emergence, and growth to very low levels. All desiccant applications reduced pitted morningglory seed production compared to the untreated check. Glyphosate at 1.1 kg/ha plus 6.7 kg/ha sodium chlorate, 0.3 kg/ha oxyfluorfen plus 3.4 kg/ha sodium chlorate, and 0.8 or 1.1 kg/ha glufosinate reduced pitted morningglory seed production and desiccated weeds effectively. Most treatments reduced emergence in 1996, when seeds were smaller and less mature than those collected in 1995. When application volume of paraquat alone or in tank mixture decreased, germination and growth of sicklepod was reduced, indicating increased paraquat efficacy.
Nomenclature: Bromoxynil; glufosinate; glyphosate; oxyfluorfen; paraquat; sodium chlorate; pitted morningglory, Ipomoea lacunosa L. #3 IPOLA; hemp sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) ex A. W. Hill # SEBEX; sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin et Barnaby # CASOB; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘NK 4260’.
Additional index words: Desiccation, germination, early-maturing soybean.
Abbreviations: DAT, days after treatment.