Field trials were initiated at three Missouri locations in the fall of 2004 and 2005 to compare the efficacy of fall and early spring herbicide applications on winter and summer annual weed populations in no-till soybean. All three experiments received applications of chlorimuron plus sulfentrazone plus 2,4-D; chlorimuron plus tribenuron plus 2,4-D; and glyphosate plus 2,4-D in the fall, 60 d prior to planting (60 PP), 30 days prior to planting (30 PP), and 7 d prior to planting (7 PP). Good control of all winter annual weeds, except for common chickweed, was observed at planting from fall applications of chlorimuron plus sulfentrazone plus 2,4-D and chlorimuron plus tribenuron plus 2,4-D. Fall, 60 PP, and 30 PP applications of chlorimuron plus sulfentrazone plus 2,4-D provided relatively poor control of common chickweed. Glyphosate plus 2,4-D applied in the fall and 60 PP provided adequate control of early fall germinating winter annuals, such as common chickweed and henbit. However, these treatments provided poor control of winter annual species that exhibited some degree of spring germination. Control of summer annual weed species 7 wk after planting (WAP) was highly variable. Relatively poor control of common waterhemp was obtained from all treatments except chlorimuron plus sulfentrazone plus 2,4-D applied at all three spring timings. Giant foxtail control was highly variable ranging from 0 to 95%. Measurements of weed biomass collected 7 WAP revealed larger amounts of biomass present in the fall application timing of each herbicide treatment. Emergence of winter and summer annual weed species from early March to 7 WAP varied by herbicide treatment. Emergence of total winter and summer annual weed species was reduced with both residual herbicide treatments when compared with glyphosate plus 2,4-D and the untreated control.
Nomenclature: Chlorimuron, 2,4-D, glyphosate, sulfentrazone, tribenuron, common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill. STEME, common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer AMATA, giant foxtail, Setaria faberi Herrm. SETFA, henbit, Lamium amplexicaule L. LAMAM, soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Dekalb 38-52’