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1 November 2012 Comparison of the Herbicidal Activity of Phenyl Isothiocyanate with Methyl Bromide in Polyethylene-Mulched Tomato
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Abstract

Field experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the herbicidal activity of phenyl isothiocyanate (ITC) on yellow nutsedge, Palmer amaranth, and large crabgrass in tomato grown on two polyethylene-mulched types. Treatments included two mulch types (low density polyethylene [LDPE] mulch and virtually impermeable film [VIF] mulch) and phenyl ITC at 0, 15, 75, 150, 750, and 1,500 kg ha−1. A standard rate of methyl bromide/chloropicrin (67 : 33%) at 390 kg ha−1 under LDPE mulch was included for comparison. Regardless of mulch type, phenyl ITC at 1,452 (±133) and 1,719 (±426) kg ha−1 was required for broad-spectrum weed control equivalent to methyl bromide in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Tomato injury was ≥ 44% at the highest phenyl ITC rate of 1,500 kg ha−1 at 2 wk after transplanting (WATP) both years, irrespective of mulch type. Greater crop injury was observed from 750 kg ha−1 of phenyl ITC in 2006 (≥ 27%) than in 2007 (≤ 10%). The greater injury in 2006 was attributed to a higher phenyl ITC concentration because holes in the plastic mulch for transplanting were punched at the time of transplanting in 2006; whereas, in 2007 holes were punched 2 d before transplanting, allowing 2 d of aeration before transplanting. Tomato marketable yield at all rates of phenyl ITC was lower than with methyl bromide in 2006. However, in 2007, marketable yield in plots treated with phenyl ITC at 750 kg ha−1 was equivalent to methyl bromide. Overall, VIF mulch was no more effective than LDPE mulch at increasing weed control or improving the marketable yield of tomato either year.

Nomenclature: Methyl bromide; phenyl isothiocyanate, large crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; yellow nutsedge, Cyperus esculentus L.; tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ‘Amelia'.

En 2006 y 2007, se realizaron experimentos de campo para evaluar la actividad herbicida de phenyl isothiocyanate (ITC) sobre Cyperus esculentus, Amaranthus palmeri y Digitaria sanguinalis, en tomate producido con dos tipos de cobertura de polyethylene. Los tratamientos incluyeron dos tipos de cobertura (cobertura de polyethylene de baja densidad [LDPE] y cobertura de película virtualmente impermeable [VIF]) y phenyl ITC a 0, 15, 75, 150, 750 y 1,500 kg ha−1. Una dosis estándar de methyl bromide/chloropicrin (67:33%) a 390 kg ha−1 bajo cobertura LDPE fue incluida como comparación. Sin importar el tipo de cobertura, se requirió phenyl ITC a 1,452 (±133) y 1,719 (±426) kg ha−1 para alcanzar un control de malezas de amplio espectro equivalente a methyl bromide en 2006 y 2007, respectivamente. Dos semanas después del trasplante (WATP), en ambos años, el daño al tomate fue 44% a la dosis más alta de phenyl ITC de 1,500 kg ha−1, sin importar el tipo de cobertura. Un mayor daño al cultivo se observó en 2006 (≥27%) que en 2007 (≤10%), a 750 kg ha−1 de phenyl ITC. El mayor daño en 2006 fue atribuido a una mayor concentración de phenyl ITC porque los orificios en el plástico se hicieron al momento del trasplante en 2006, mientras que en 2007 los orificios se perforaron 2 días antes del trasplante, lo que permitió dos días de aireación antes del mismo. El rendimiento de tomate comercializable en todas las dosis de phenyl ITC fue menor que con methyl bromide en 2006. Sin embargo, en 2007, el rendimiento comercializable en las parcelas tratadas con phenyl ITC a 750 kg ha−1 fue equivalente a methyl bromide. En general, la cobertura VIF no fue más efectiva que la cobertura LDPE para incr

Sanjeev K. Bangarwa, Jason K. Norsworthy, and Edward E. Gbur "Comparison of the Herbicidal Activity of Phenyl Isothiocyanate with Methyl Bromide in Polyethylene-Mulched Tomato," Weed Technology 26(4), 666-672, (1 November 2012). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00040.1
Received: 6 March 2012; Accepted: 1 May 2012; Published: 1 November 2012
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