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1 November 2012 Winter Annual Weed Suppression in Rye–Vetch Cover Crop Mixtures
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Abstract

Winter annual weeds can interfere directly with crops and serve as alternative hosts for important pests, particularly in reduced tillage systems. Field experiments were conducted on loamy sand soils at two sites in Holt, MI, between 2008 and 2011 to evaluate the relative effects of cereal rye, hairy vetch, and rye–vetch mixture cover crops on the biomass and density of winter annual weed communities. All cover crop treatments significantly reduced total weed biomass compared with a no-cover-crop control, with suppression ranging from 71 to 91% for vetch to 95 to 98% for rye. In all trials, the density of nonmustard family broadleaf weeds was either not suppressed or suppressed equally by all cover crop treatments. In contrast, the density of mustard family weed species was suppressed more by rye and rye–vetch mixtures than by vetch. Cover crops were more consistently suppressive of weed dry weight per plant than of weed density, with rye-containing cover crops generally more suppressive than vetch. Overall, rye was most effective at suppressing winter annual weeds; however, rye–vetch mixtures can match the level of control achieved by rye, in addition to providing a potential source of fixed nitrogen for subsequent cash crops.

Nomenclature: Cereal rye, Secale cereale L.; hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; mustard family, Brassicaceae

Las malezas anuales de invierno pueden interferir directamente con los cultivos y pueden servir como hospederos alternativos para plagas importantes, particularmente en sistemas con labranza reducida. Se realizaron experimentos de campo en suelos areno limosos en dos sitios en Holt, Michigan entre 2008 y 2011 para evaluar los efectos relativos de los cultivos de cobertura Secale cereale , Vicia villosa y la mezcla S. cereale-V. villosa sobre la biomasa y la densidad de las comunidades de malezas anuales de invierno. Todos los tratamientos de cultivos de cobertura redujeron significativamente la biomasa total de malezas en comparación con el testigo sin cultivo de cobertura, con una supresión que varió de 71 a 91% en el caso de V. villosa y de 95 a 98% en el caso de S. cereale. En todos los experimentos, la densidad de malezas de hoja ancha que no pertenecen a la familia de la mostaza (Brassicaceae) no fue suprimida o fue suprimida de la misma forma por todos los tratamientos de cobertura. En contraste, la densidad de la familia de la mostaza fue suprimida más por los tratamientos con S. cereale que el tratamiento de V. villosa. Los cultivos de cobertura fueron más consistentemente supresores del peso seco por individuo de malezas que de la densidad de malezas, y las coberturas que contenían S. cereale fueron más supresoras que la cobertura de V. villosa.

Zachary D. Hayden, Daniel C. Brainard, Ben Henshaw, and Mathieu Ngouajio "Winter Annual Weed Suppression in Rye–Vetch Cover Crop Mixtures," Weed Technology 26(4), 818-825, (1 November 2012). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00084.1
Received: 22 May 2012; Accepted: 1 July 2012; Published: 1 November 2012
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