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1 June 2013 Influence of Deep Tillage, a Rye Cover Crop, and Various Soybean Production Systems on Palmer Amaranth Emergence in Soybean
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Abstract

Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth has become a major threat to soybean production in the southern United States. Arkansas soybean producers rely heavily on glyphosate-resistant soybean; hence, an alternative solution for controlling resistant Palmer amaranth is needed. A field experiment was conducted at Marianna, AR, during 2009 and 2010 in which soybean production systems were tested in combination with deep tillage and no tillage to determine the impact on Palmer amaranth emergence. To establish a baseline population, 250,000 glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth seeds were placed in a 1-m2 area in the middle of each plot and incorporated in the soil, and emergence was evaluated five times during the season. Production systems of full-season soybean with a rye cover crop or soybean double-cropped with wheat, which had high amounts of plant residue on the soil surface reduced Palmer amaranth emergence more than systems without deep tillage and a cover crop or wheat. When used in combination with deep tillage, these systems reduced Palmer amaranth emergence by 98 and 97%, respectively, in 2009 and by 73 and 82%, respectively, in 2010. Deep tillage alone caused an 81% reduction in emergence averaged over both years. Soybean double-cropped with wheat used in combination with deep tillage provided a 95% reduction in Palmer amaranth emergence over the 2-yr period. This research shows that deep tillage in combination with soybean production systems that have high amounts of residue on the soil surface are alternative means for providing a high level of control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and could lessen the dependence on chemical weed control.

Nomenclature: Glyphosate; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘AG 4303RR', ‘AG 4703RR', ‘AG 5605RR/STS'; rye, Secale cereale L. ‘Wrens Abruzzi'; wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘Terral TV 8558′.

Amaranthus palmeri resistente a glyphosate se ha convertido en una gran amenaza para la producción de soya en el sur de Estados Unidos. Los productores de soya de Arkansas dependen fuertemente de soya resistente a glyphosate; por esta razón, es necesaria una solución alternativa para el control de A. palmeri resistente a glyphosate. Se realizó un experimento de campo en Marianna, AR, durante 2009 y 2010 en el cual diferentes sistemas de producción de soya fueron evaluados en combinación con labranza profunda y labranza cero, para determinar el impacto sobre la emergencia de A. palmeri. Para establecer una población como línea base, 250,000 semillas de A. palmeri resistente a glyphosate fueron puestas en una área de 1 m2 en el medio de una parcela y se incorporaron al suelo, y luego se evaluó la emergencia cinco veces durante la temporada de crecimiento. Los sistemas de producción con soya de temporada completa con centeno como cultivo de cobertura o de soya con trigo como cultivo doble, los cuales tuvieron altas cantidades de residuo vegetal sobre la superficie del suelo, redujeron la emergencia de A. palmeri más que los sistemas sin labranza profunda y sin cultivo de cobertura o trigo. Cuando se usaron en combinación con labranza profunda, estos sistemas redujeron la emergencia de A. palmeri en 98 y 97%, respectivamente, en 2009 y en 73 y 82%, respectivamente, en 2010. La labranza profunda sola causó una reducción de 81% en la emergencia al promediarse ambos años. La soya con trigo como cultivo doble, usada en combinación con la labran

Justin D. DeVore, Jason K. Norsworthy, and Kristofor R. Brye "Influence of Deep Tillage, a Rye Cover Crop, and Various Soybean Production Systems on Palmer Amaranth Emergence in Soybean," Weed Technology 27(2), 263-270, (1 June 2013). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00125.1
Received: 22 August 2012; Accepted: 1 November 2012; Published: 1 June 2013
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