Translator Disclaimer
1 April 2014 Allyl Isothiocyanate and Metham Sodium as Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Weed Control in Plasticulture Tomato
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Isothiocyanates (ITCs) were evaluated as an alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for control of Palmer amaranth, large crabgrass, and yellow nutsedge; reduction of tuber density; and increase in marketable tomato yield in low density polyethylene (LDPE)-mulched tomato production. Allyl ITC was applied at 450, 600, and 750 kg ai ha−1; metham sodium (methyl ITC generator) was applied at 180, 270, and 360 kg ai ha−1; and MeBr plus chloropicrin (mixture of MeBr and chloropicrin at 67 : 33%, respectively) was applied at 390 kg ai ha−1. A nontreated weedy check was included for comparison. There was no injury to tomato plants following allyl ITC, metham sodium, or MeBr application. Allyl ITC at 750 kg ha−1 or metham sodium at 360 kg ha−1 controlled Palmer amaranth ≥ 79%, large crabgrass ≥ 76%, and yellow nutsedge ≥ 80% and was comparable to the weed control with MeBr. Highest rates of allyl ITC and metham sodium reduced yellow nutsedge tuber density (≤ 76 tubers m−2) comparable to the MeBr application. Total marketable tomato yield was ≥ 31.6 t ha−1 in plots treated with allyl ITC at 750 kg ha−1 or metham sodium at 360 kg ha−1. Marketable tomato yield from the highest rate of allyl ITC or metham sodium were similar to the yield (38.2 t ha−1) with MeBr treatment. Therefore, allyl ITC at 750 kg ha−1 and metham sodium at 360 kg ha−1 are effective alternatives to MeBr for Palmer amaranth, large crabgrass, and yellow nutsedge control in LDPE-mulched tomato.

Nomenclature: Allyl isothiocyanate; metham sodium; methyl bromide; large crabgrass; Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. DIGSA; Palmer amaranth; Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. AMAPA; yellow nutsedge; Cyperus esculentus L. CYPES; tomato; Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Amelia'.

Se evaluaron isothiocyanates (ITCs) como alternativa a methyl bromide (MeBr) para el control de Amaranthus palmeri, Digitaria sanguinalis, Cyperus esculentus, para la reducción de la densidad de tubérculos, y para el incremento en el rendimiento comercializable del tomate en producción de este cultivo en coberturas de polyethylene de baja densidad (LPDE). Se aplicó allyl ITC a 450, 600, y 750 kg ai ha−1; metham sodium (generador de methyl ITC) se aplicó a 180, 270, y 360 kg ai ha−1, y MeBr más chloropicrin (mezcla de MeBr y chloropicrin a 67:33%, respectivamente) se aplicó a 390 kg ai ha−1. Un testigo no-tratado con malezas se incluyó para fines de comparación. No hubo daño en las plantas de tomate después de las aplicaciones de allyl ITC, metham sodium, o MeBr. Allyl ITC a 750 kg ha−1 o metham sodium a 360 kg ha−1 controlaron A. palmeri ≥79%, D. sanguinalis 76%, y C. esculentus ≥80%, y este control fue comparable al control observado con MeBr. Las dosis más altas de allyl ITC y metham sodium redujeron la densidad de los tubérculos de C. esculentus (≤76 tubérculos m−2), lo que fue comparable a la aplicación de MeBr. El rendimiento comercializable total del tomate fue ≥31.6 ton ha−1 en las parcelas tratadas con allyl ITC a 750 kg ha−1 o con metham sodium a 360 kg ha−1. El rendimiento comercializable del tomate con la dosis más alta de allyl ITC o metham sodium fue similar al rendimiento del tratamiento con MeBr (38.2 ton ha−1). De esta manera, allyl ITC a 750 kg ha<

Pratap Devkota and Jason K. Norsworthy "Allyl Isothiocyanate and Metham Sodium as Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Weed Control in Plasticulture Tomato," Weed Technology 28(2), (1 April 2014). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-13-00147.1
Received: 25 September 2013; Accepted: 1 December 2013; Published: 1 April 2014
JOURNAL ARTICLE
8 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS
Get copyright permission
Back to Top