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1 December 2017 Controlling Dinitroaniline-Resistant Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) in Turfgrass
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Prodiamine is a dinitroaniline herbicide labeled for PRE control of goosegrass in warm- and cool-season turfgrass. In 2013, several golf course roughs in Maryville, TN reported poor goosegrass control (< 20%) following prodiamine treatment at 1,120 g ai ha-1. We harvested suspected prodiamine-resistant (PR) and prodiamine-susceptible (S) goosegrass phenotypes from the field and exposed them to a range of increasing prodiamine concentrations in hydroponic culture. Exposure to prodiamine at 0.001mM reduced root growth of the S phenotype to 11% of the non-treated check. By comparison, exposure to 0.001mM prodiamine had minimal effect on the PR phenotype, as root growth was 94% of the non-treated check. Molecular analyses revealed that PR plants contained a threonine (Thr) to isoleucine (Ile) substitution at position 239 on the α-tubulin 1 (TUA1) protein. The substitution, found in all PR plants, is the mechanism of prodiamine resistance in this phenotype. In field studies, topramezone controlled PR goosegrass 72% to 89% by 50 d after treatment (DAT) compared to only 22% to 23% for foramsulfuron. Topramezone treatment injured bermudagrass 34% to 60% from 7 to 14 DAT; however, injury was ≤6% 28 DAT and 0% by the end of the study. Our results indicate that POST applications of topramezone can control dinitroaniline-resistant goosegrass. In addition, we established an easy-to-use genotyping assay to quickly screen goosegrass phenotypes for a target-site mutation (Thr-239-Ile) on TUA1 associated with resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides such as prodiamine. Future research should work to expand this assay for use with other weed species and herbicidal modes of action.

Nomenclature: Foramsulfuron; prodiamine; topramezone; goosegrass, Eleusine indica L. Gaertn.; bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.

© Weed Science Society of America, 2017. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Shane M. Breeden, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, Jose J. Vargas, Gregor Eichberger, Stefan Tresch, and Martin Laforest "Controlling Dinitroaniline-Resistant Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) in Turfgrass," Weed Technology 31(6), (1 December 2017).
Received: 6 March 2017; Accepted: 1 June 2017; Published: 1 December 2017

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