Herbicide-resistant Echinochloa spp. pose a significant threat to U.S. rice production. Two surveys were conducted to characterize Echinochloa resistance to common rice herbicides and provide important demographic information on the populations in Arkansas: one was the Echinochloa Herbicide Resistance Confirmation Survey conducted annually since 2006; the other was the Echinochloa Herbicide Resistance Demographics Survey conducted since 2010. The Resistance Confirmation Survey showed that resistance to propanil (50%) was most prevalent, followed by quinclorac (23%), imazethapyr (13%), and cyhalofop (3%). Multiple resistance increased with time, with 27% of accessions being multiple-resistant, mostly to propanil quinclorac (12%). The parallel Resistance Demographics Survey tested resistance by species. Of the 264 accessions collected, 73% were junglerice, 14% were rough barnyardgrass, and 11% were barnyardgrass. Overall, this survey also showed resistance to propanil (53%) and quinclorac (28%) being most prevalent, with low frequencies of resistance to cyhalofop (12%) and imazethapyr (6%). Resistance to herbicides was less frequent with barnyardgrass (54%) and rough barnyardgrass (28%) than with junglerice (73%). Multiple resistance was most frequent with junglerice (33%) and least frequent with rough barnyardgrass (8%). Across both surveys, the resistance cases were clustered in the northeast and Grand Prairie regions of the state. Herbicide resistance among Echinochloa populations in rice fields is continuing to increase in frequency and complexity. This is a consequence of sequential selection with different major herbicide sites of action, starting with propanil followed by quinclorac and others.
Nomenclature: Cyhalofop; imazethapyr; quinclorac; propanil; barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.; junglerice, Echinochloa colona (L.) Link; rough barnyardgrass, Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern; rice, Oryza sativa L.