Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park in 1995–1996. In August 2004 we measured plant architecture of Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana) stems along three 100-m reaches of Blacktail Deer Creek in Yellowstone's northern elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range to evaluate changes in patterns of browsing and height growth following wolf reintroduction. Average browsing intensities (n = 3 stream reaches) of 100% in 1997 decreased to 0%–55% by 2003, whereas average stem heights of 25–74 cm in 1997 increased to 149–268 cm by 2003, indicating that willow height growth was inversely related to browsing intensity. In addition, average willow canopy cover over the streams increased from <5% in 1997 to 14%–73% in 2004. These findings were consistent with a hypothesis that increased willow heights following the 1995–1996 wolf reintroduction represent a trophic cascade involving wolves, elk, and deciduous woody vegetation.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 67 • No. 4