We studied the mating system and flower visitors of 2 threatened species of Sclerocactus (Cactaceae) in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah—an area undergoing rapid energy development. We found that both S. wetlandicus and S. brevispinus are predominantly outcrossed and are essentially self-incompatible. A third presumptive taxon (undescribed; here called S. wetlandicus-var1) is fully self-compatible but cannot produce seeds unless the flowers are visited by pollinators. We found tentative evidence for pollinator limitation of fruit set in S. brevispinus but not in the other taxa. Pollinators are largely species of native ground-nesting bees in the subfamily Halictinae. These bees are indiscriminate collectors of pollen and nectar from Sclerocactus flowers and other plant species. The well-being of Sclerocactus populations requires that land managers ensure the preservation of halictid bee habitat, which includes both nesting sites and a diversity of floral resources. These bees are also undoubtedly the pollen vectors responsible for the production of hybrids in areas where S. wetlandicus and S. brevispinus meet. We experimentally confirmed that reciprocal crosses between S. wetlandicus and S. brevispinus are indistinguishable from each other or from pure crosses in fruits/flower, seeds/fruit and seed weights. We suggest that hybridization preceded energy development, that it attests to the ongoing process of evolution in the Sclerocactus group, and that it should not be suppressed by anthropogenic activity.
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