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1 December 2014 A Survey of Spiders Found in Fallen Pine Cones in Eastern Washington State
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Abstract

Fallen pine cones are a microhabitat for spiders in Washington State. Eighty-nine species of spiders from 24 families and 70 genera were identified from 1060 specimens collected from over 4567 cones of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus monticola between 2008 and 2013. Euryopis formosa Banks 1908 (Theridiidae) and Pholcophora americana Banks 1896 (Pholcidae) were the most abundant species collected (27% and 9.3% of identified specimens, respectively) and occurred most frequently (49% and 21% of sampling sites, respectively). Fallen cones may be an important microhabitat for these species in Washington. Fallen cones produced 18 spider species rare in Washington, including Theridion rabuni Chamberlin and Ivie 1944 (Theridiidae), which has not been found in any other microhabitat in the state. Sampling fallen cones added a mean of 3 species (SD 2, range 0–9) to site lists created by conventional collecting methods like sweeps, litter sifting, and foliage beats. Agelenid spiders incorporated entire cones into their webs, while other species placed egg sacs or retreats on cone surfaces or used the inner spaces of cones to build prey capture webs or to molt.

© 2014
Laurel J. Ramseyer and Rodney L. Crawford "A Survey of Spiders Found in Fallen Pine Cones in Eastern Washington State," Western North American Naturalist 74(4), 405-415, (1 December 2014). https://doi.org/10.3398/064.074.0406
Received: 14 February 2014; Accepted: 1 October 2014; Published: 1 December 2014
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