Long-term studies are essential to understanding the effects of urbanization on wetlands and the effectiveness of management actions. Using data from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) in combination with GIS analyses and field surveys, we tracked changes over 16 years (1982–1998) in small (≤2 ha), palustrine emergent/open water wetlands (PEM/POW) in Portland, Oregon, USA. Wetlands identified on NWI maps and that had not been converted to other land uses at the time of the 1992 survey were surveyed in 1998. Data were collected on 164 of the 171 wetlands in the target population. Despite development pressure throughout the 1990s, loss of small PEM/POW wetlands slowed between 1992 and 1998, with only 6% of the sites being destroyed as compared to 40% between 1982 and 1992. Of 11 sites that were not identifiable due to drought in 1992, eight had recovered with the return of typical rainfall; three had been destroyed. Most of the wetlands existing in 1998 were in hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes atypical to the region due to human manipulation. Hydrologic modifications were observed on 60% of the sites, but on-site disturbances like mowing, dumping, and trail building had decreased since the 1992 survey. Over the time period studied, land uses adjacent to the study sites shifted from undeveloped and agricultural to urban and residential use. Reflecting the common occurrence of on- and off-site stressors and modifications, we rated the condition of only 11% of the sites as good, with 46% fair and 43% poor. Our results demonstrate the utility of combining field surveys with GIS analyses to track the status of wetland resources over time. The next challenge is to use such data to develop strategies to manage urban wetlands in ways that maintain and ultimately improve the condition of the resource.
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Vol. 24 • No. 4