Scavenging birds at landfill sites carry disease, cause nuisance, and may create a bird-strike hazard. We evaluated the efficacy of trained hybrid falcons (Falco spp.) or hawks (Buteo spp. and Parabuteo spp.) at deterring scavenging gulls and corvids from a series of sites in the United Kingdom. Birds were flown throughout daylight hours, 7 days per week for periods of 7–12 weeks. We conducted our studies in all seasons as gull and corvid populations fluctuated. Although neither raptor group was able to completely eliminate all scavenging birds, bird numbers were reduced more consistently by falcons than by hawks. Based on our research, we recommend that falcons may be more appropriate than hawks for use within integrated bird management strategies to reduce the problems associated with gulls and corvids at landfill sites.
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