Translator Disclaimer
20 December 2011 A molecular phylogenetic study of the Ephedra distachya / E. sinica complex in Eurasia
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

This study provides new information on phylogenetic relationships in the Ephedra distachya / E. sinica complex (Ephedraceae, gymnosperms) based on sequence variation and morphology-based delimitation of individual species. Altogether we have included 50 samples from this complex and closely related species with 39 samples sequenced for the first time. Our sampling scheme provides a much broader sampling both in respect of the number of species as well as the number of samples per species than has been accomplished in previous studies. Sequences for E. dahurica and E. pseudodistachya are given here for the first time. We sequenced the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (nr ITS1 ITS2) as well as the chloroplast intergenic spacer between rnL and trnF (cp trnL-F), but only ITS1 was sufficiently informative for phylogeny reconstruction. Our data show, for the first time, (1) a well supported E. strobilacea / E. sarcocarpa / E. transitoria clade as sister to the “L” or “Asia 2” clade, furthermore (2) a distinct E. distachya clade, (3) a composite E. dahurica clade that also includes E. sinica and a fraction of E. intermedia, (4) a well supported E. regeliana clade and (5) an unresolved agglomeration of E. intermedia, E. przewalskii, E. lomatolepis and E. pseudodistachya. Most noteworthy is the support derived from the molecular data for (1) the separation of the hitherto doubtful E. pseudodistachya from E. distachya and E. dahurica and (2) the high degree of sequence similarity of E. sinica and E. dahurica. Based on morphological, molecular, ecological and biogeographical evidence, E. sinica is reduced to a subspecies of E. dahurica.

See the PDF.

References

  1. J. Amann 1739: Stirpium rariorum in imperio Rutheno sponte provenientium icones et descriptiones collectae 1. — Petropoli: Typographia Academiae Scientiarum. Google Scholar

  2. M. N. Chaudhri , I. H. Vegter & C. M. de Wal 1972: Index herbariorum. Part 2, Collectors 3. — Regnum Veg. 86. Google Scholar

  3. C. Y. Cheng 1978: Ephedraceae. — Pp. 468–489 in: W. C. Cheng & L. K. Fu (ed.), Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 7. — Beijing: Science Press. Google Scholar

  4. Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) 2005: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China 1. — Beijing: People's Medical Publ. House. Google Scholar

  5. S. K. Czerepanov 1995: Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). — Cambridge: Cambridge University. Google Scholar

  6. C. R. Florin 1933: Über einige neue oder wenig bekannte asiatische Ephedra-Arten der Sektion Pseudobaccatae Stapf. — Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 12(1): 1–49. Google Scholar

  7. H. Freitag & M. Maier-Stolte 1993: Ephedra. — P. 49 in: T. G. Tutin , N. A. Burges , A. O. Chater , J. R. Edmondson , V. H. Heywood , D. M. Moore , D. H. Valentine , S. M. Walters & D. A. Webb (ed.), Flora europaea, ed. 2, 1. — Cambridge: Cambridge University. Google Scholar

  8. H. Freitag & M. Maier-Stolte 1994: Ephedraceae. — Pp. 5–16, 39–52 in: K. Browicz (ed), Chorology of trees and shrubs in Southwest Asia and adjacent regions 10. — Poznan: Polish Scientific Publishers. Google Scholar

  9. H. Freitag & M. Maier-Stolte 2009: Ephedra. — In: FloraGreif. Virtual flora of Mongolia. — Greifswald University: Published at  http://greif.uni-greifwald.de/ floragreif  Google Scholar

  10. B. Frenzel 1992: Atlas of the palaeoclimates and palaeoenvironments of the northern hemisphere. Late Pleistocene—Holocene. — Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Jena: G. Fischer. Google Scholar

  11. L. G. Fu , Y. F. Yu & H. Riedl 1999: Ephedraceae. — Pp. 97–103 in: Z. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven (ed.). Flora of China 4. — Beijing: Science Press & St Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden. Google Scholar

  12. A. V. Galanin 2008: Ephedra. — Pp. 74 in: A. V. Galanin , A. B. Belikovich & O. B. Khrbko (ed.), Flora of Dahuria 1. — Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. Google Scholar

  13. J. G. Gmelin 1747: Flora sibirica sive historia plantarum Siberiae 1. — St. Petersburg: Academia Scientiarum. Google Scholar

  14. R. Govaerts 2010a: World Checklist of Ephedraceae. — Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: published at  http:// apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.doGoogle Scholar

  15. R. Govaerts 2010b: Ephedraceae. — In: Euro+Med PlantBase. — Published at  http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.aspGoogle Scholar

  16. V. I. Grubov 1982: Opredelitel' sosudistykh rastenii Mongolii — Leningrad: Nauka [Engl, ed.: 2000, Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia. Enfield & Plymouth: Science Publishers]. Google Scholar

  17. I. A. Gubanov 1996: Konspekt flory vneshnej Mongolii (sosudistye rasteniya) — Moskva: Valang. Google Scholar

  18. J. Huang , D. E. Giannasi & R. A. Price 2005: Phylogenetic relationships in Ephedra (Ephedraceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. — Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 35: 48–59. Google Scholar

  19. S. M. Ickert-Bond & C. Rydin 2011: Micromorphology of the seed envelope of Ephedra (Gnetales) and its relevance for the timing of evolutionary events. — Int. J. Pl. Sci. 172: 36–48. Google Scholar

  20. S. M. Ickert-Bond & M. F. Wojciechowski 2004: Phylogenetic relationship in Ephedra ( Gnetales): evidence from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data. — Syst. Bot. 29: 834–849. Google Scholar

  21. S. M. Ickert-Bond , C. Rydin & S. S. Renner 2009: A fossil-calibrated relaxed clock for Ephedra indicates an Oligocene age for the divergence of Asian and New World clades and Miocene dispersal into South America. — J. Syst. Evol. 47: 444–456. Google Scholar

  22. Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare 2006: Japanese Pharmacopoeia, ed. 15. — Published at  http:// www.mhlw.go.jp/index.shtml  Google Scholar

  23. C. Jarvis 2007: Order out of chaos: Linnean plant names and their types. — London: The Linnean Society & The Natural History Museum. Google Scholar

  24. N. Kakiuchi & M. Mikage 2007: Collaborative survey of Ephedra plants in Buryatia, Russia. — Newslett. Himalayan Bot. 39: 1–8. Google Scholar

  25. G. Lang 1994: Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas: Methoden und Ergebnisse. — Stuttgart: G. Fischer. Google Scholar

  26. Y. Liu 1985: Flora in desertis Reipublicae Populorum Sinarum 1. — Beijing: Science Press [in Chinese]. Google Scholar

  27. C. F. Long , N. Kakiuchi , A. Takahashi , K. Komatsu , S. Q. Cai & M. Mikage 2004: Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequence of the non-coding region of nuclear ribosomal DNA and chloroplast of Ephedra plants in China. — Pl. Med. 70: 1080–1085. Google Scholar

  28. D. R. Maddison & W. P. Maddison 2005: MacClade v. 4.08. — Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Google Scholar

  29. C. A. Meyer 1846: Versuch einer Monographie der Gattung Ephedra — St. Petersburg: Druckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Google Scholar

  30. M. Mikage 2009: Report of achievement for Grant-in-Aids for Project No. 17405014 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport Science and Technology of Japan. — Published at  http://kaken.nii.ac.jp/ ja/p/17405014  Google Scholar

  31. K. Müller 2006: Incorporating information from lengthmutational events into phylogenetic analysis. — Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 38: 667–676. Google Scholar

  32. V. A. Nikitin 1957: Ephedraceae — Pp. 503–504 in: P. N. Ovchinnikow (ed.). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1. — Moskva & Leningrad: Izd. Akedamii Nauk SSSR. Google Scholar

  33. J. Nouviant 1993: Ephedra negrii. — Pp. 65 in: M. Kerguelen , Index synonymique de la Flore de France. — Paris: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Google Scholar

  34. J. Nouviant 1997: Recherches sur Ephedra en Europe III: Entre Ephedra distachya et helvetica. — Bull. Murith. Soc. Valais, Sci. Nat. 115: 68–75. Google Scholar

  35. Nouviant J:1998: Recherches sur Ephedra in Europe V: Typification de E. monostachya et clé de détermination des Ephedra européens. — Bull. Murith. Soc. Valais, Sci. Nat. 116: 81–87. Google Scholar

  36. M. G. Pachomova 1968: Ephedra vvedenskyi Pachom. sp. nov. —Pp. 198–199 in: S. S. Kovalevskaya (ed.), Conspectus florae Asiae Mediae 1. — Tashkent: Academia Scientiarum USSR. Google Scholar

  37. M. G. Pachomova 1971: Ephedra. — Pp. 25–33 in: V. I. Grubov , A. E. Macenko & M. G. Pakhomova (ed.), Plantae Asiae Centralis 6. — Leningrad: Nauka. Google Scholar

  38. G. A. Peschkova 2005: Synopsis of the Siberian Ephedra species (Ephedraceae). — Bot. Zhurn. 90: 423–426. [in Russian]. Google Scholar

  39. W. Pfeiffer & A. Stamatakis 2010: Hybrid MPI/Pthreads parallelization of the RAxML Phylogenetics Code. — In: Ninth IEEE International Workshop on High Performance Computational Biology (HiCOMB 2010) Atlanta. — Published on the CIPRES Science Gateway at  http: www.phylo.org/subsections/portal/  Google Scholar

  40. E. Regel 1880: Ephedra glauca Rgl. — Trudy Imp. St.Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 6: 484. Google Scholar

  41. R. Riedl 1967: Die Gattung Ephedra in Europa. — Sci. Pharm. 36: 225–228. Google Scholar

  42. F. Ronquist & J. P. Huelsenbeck 2003: MrBayes 3.0: Bayesian phylogenetic inference using mixed models. — Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574. Google Scholar

  43. C. Rydin & P. Korall 2009: Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra (Gnetales), with implications for seed plant phylogeny. — Int. J. Pl. Sci. 170: 1031–1043. Google Scholar

  44. C. Rydin , A. Khodabandeh & P. K. Endress 2010: The female reproductive unit of Ephedra (Gnetales): comparative morphology and evolutionary perspectives. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 163: 387–430. Google Scholar

  45. P. Sharma & P. L. Uniyal 2009: Ephedra sumlingensis (Ephedraceae) Sharma & Uniyal a new species from Himachal Pradesh, India. — Bull. Bot. Surv. India 50: 179–182. Google Scholar

  46. P. Sharma , P. L. Uniyal & O. Hammer 2010: Two new species of Ephedra (Ephedraceae) from the western Himalayan Region. —  Syst. Bot. 35: 730–735. Google Scholar

  47. M. P. Simmons & H. Ochoterena 2000: Gaps as characters in sequence-based phylogenetic analyses. — Syst. Biol. 49: 369–381. Google Scholar

  48. M. P. Simmons , K. Müller & A. P. Norton 2007: The relative performance of indel coding methods in simulations. — Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 44: 724–740 Google Scholar

  49. V. N. Siplivinskiy 1973: Chto takoe Ephedra dahurica Turcz.? [What is Ephedra dahurica Turcz.?]. — Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1973: 355–357. Google Scholar

  50. A. Stamatakis , P. Hoover & J. Rougemont 2008: A fast bootstrapping algorithm for the RAxML Web-Servers. — Syst. Biol. 57: 758–771. Google Scholar

  51. O. Stapf 1889: Die Arten der Gattung Ephedra. —  Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 56: 1–112. Google Scholar

  52. O. Stapf 1927: Ma huang of China (Epheda sinica Stapf). — Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew. 3: 133–134. Google Scholar

  53. P. Taberlet , F. Gielly , G. Pautou & J. Boubet 1991: Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding region of chloroplast DNA. — Pl. Molec. Biol. 17: 1105–1109. Google Scholar

  54. A. L. Takhtajan & M. G. Pachomova 1967: Ephedra aurantiaca Takht. & Pachom. sp. n. — Bot. Mater. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Akad. Nauk Uzbeksk. S.S.R. 18: 53. Google Scholar

  55. S. W. Tang [ed. by Shang Z. J., based on the 12 century edition by Cheng A.] 2002: Daguan Bencao. — Hefei: Anhui Academic Publisher [in Chinese]. Google Scholar

  56. B. Thiers 2008+ [continuously updated]: Index herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. — New York Botanical Garden: published at  http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/Google Scholar

  57. N. S. Turczaninow 1854: Flora baicalensi-dahurica [17]. — Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 27: 353–422. Google Scholar

  58. L. Wang , N. Kakiuchi & M. Mikage 2010: Studies on Ephedra plants in Asia 6. Geographical changes of anatomical features and alkaloid content of Ephedra sinica. — J. Nat. Med. 64: 63–69. Google Scholar

  59. C. Y. Yang 1993: Ephedraceae. — Pp. 87–109 in: C. Y. Yang (ed.). Flora xinjiangensis 1. — Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Science, Technology and Hygiene Publishing. Google Scholar

  60. Y. Yang 2002: Classification of Chinese Ephedra plants and discussion on their difference. — Doctoral thesis. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Science. [in Chinese]. Google Scholar

  61. Y. Yang , D. Fu & G. Zhu 2003: A new species of Ephedra (Ephedraceae) from China. —  Novon 13: 153–155. Google Scholar

© 2011 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.
Nobuko Kakiuchi, Masayuki Mikage, Stefanie Ickert-Bond, Maria Maier-Stolte, and Helmut Freitag "A molecular phylogenetic study of the Ephedra distachya / E. sinica complex in Eurasia," Willdenowia 41(2), 203-215, (20 December 2011). https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.41.41201
Published: 20 December 2011
JOURNAL ARTICLE
13 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top