Japanese quail chicks have various patterns of calling. The chicks of both sexes emit distress call at a high rate when they are socially isolated. Chronical subcutaneous implantation of testosterone (T) induced the chick crowing which has similar in acoustical structural characteristics to male adult crowing. The chick crowing which was induced by T appeared in a mixed manner with the distress call at high rate when isolated. After T implantation, the frequencies of the chick crowing gradually increased and the distress call disappeared. The chick crowing was induced as the result of androgenic action of T, and the chick crowing disappeared after removal of T. Implantation of a small amount of T directly into mesencephalon, also induced chick crowing after a short latency. The same dose of subcutaneous T implantation failed to induce the chick crowing. This study suggested that T acts on quail chick brain to transform the distress call into the chick crowing.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.