As a first step towards understanding the functional role of neuroactive substances in the first olfactory center of the male silkworm moth Bombyx mori, we carried out an immunocytochemical identification of antennal lobe neurons. Antibodies against γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), FMRFamide, serotonin, tyramine and histamine were applied to detect their existence in the antennal lobe. In the present immunocytochemical study, we clarified four antenno-cerebral tracts from their origin and projection pathways to the protocerebrum, and revealed the following immunoreactive cellular organization in the antennal lobe. 1) Local interneurons with cell bodies in the lateral cell cluster showed GABA, FMRFamide and tyramine immunoreactivity. 2) Projection neurons passing through the middle antenno-cerebral tract with cell bodies in the lateral cell cluster showed GABA and FMRFamide immunoreactivity. Projection neurons passing through the outer antenno-cerebral tract with cell bodies in the lateral cell cluster showed FMRFamide immunoreactivity. 3) Centrifugal neurons passing through the inner antenno-cerebral tract b with cell bodies located outside the antennal lobe showed serotonin and tyramine immunoreactivity. Our results revealed basic distribution patterns of neuroactive substances in the antennal lobe and indicated that each projection pathway from the antennal lobe to the protocerebrum contains specific combination of neuro-active substances.